What are the Stages of Mesothelioma and How is it Treated?


Mesothelioma is a type of cancer that affects the mesothelium, which is a thin layer of tissue that covers most of the internal organs in the body. The most common form of mesothelioma is called pleural mesothelioma, which affects the lining of the lungs. Other types of mesothelioma include peritoneal mesothelioma, which affects the lining of the abdomen, and pericardial mesothelioma, which affects the lining of the heart.

What Causes Mesothelioma?

Mesothelioma is caused by exposure to asbestos, which is a naturally occurring mineral that was commonly used in a variety of industries, including construction, shipbuilding, and manufacturing, until the late 20th century. When asbestos fibers are inhaled or ingested, they can become lodged in the mesothelium, causing inflammation and damage to the cells that can eventually lead to cancer.

What are the Symptoms of Mesothelioma?

The symptoms of mesothelioma can vary depending on the type and stage of the cancer. In the early stages, symptoms may be mild or nonexistent, but as the cancer progresses, symptoms can become more severe and may include:

  • Chest pain
  • Shortness of breath
  • Coughing up blood
  • Fatigue
  • Weight loss
  • Abdominal pain or swelling
  • Nausea and vomiting

What are the Stages of Mesothelioma?

Mesothelioma is typically classified into four stages, ranging from Stage I (the earliest stage) to Stage IV (the most advanced stage). The staging of mesothelioma is based on the extent of the cancer and the degree to which it has spread to other parts of the body. The stages of mesothelioma are as follows:

Stage I

In Stage I, the cancer has not spread beyond the lining of the mesothelium and is confined to a single region of the body. At this stage, the cancer is typically easier to treat and has a better prognosis.

Stage II

In Stage II, the cancer has spread beyond the lining of the mesothelium and may have penetrated nearby organs or tissues. Treatment options may still be effective at this stage, but the prognosis is generally less favorable than in Stage I.

Stage III

In Stage III, the cancer has spread even further and may have invaded nearby lymph nodes. Treatment options may be more limited at this stage, and the prognosis is generally poorer than in earlier stages.

Stage IV

In Stage IV, the cancer has spread throughout the body and may have affected multiple organs and tissues. Treatment options are generally limited at this stage, and the prognosis is typically very poor.

How is Mesothelioma Treated?

The treatment of mesothelioma depends on the stage of the cancer and the overall health of the patient. Treatment options may include:

  • Surgery to remove the cancerous tissue
  • Radiation therapy to kill cancer cells
  • Chemotherapy to shrink or slow the growth of the cancer
  • Immunotherapy to boost the immune system's ability to fight the cancer
  • Palliative care to relieve symptoms and improve quality of life


Mesothelioma is a serious and often deadly form of cancer that is caused by exposure to asbestos. The symptoms and treatment options for mesothelioma vary depending on the stage of the cancer, but early detection and prompt treatment can improve the prognosis for patients. If you have been exposed to asbestos or are experiencing symptoms of mesothelioma, it is important to speak with a healthcare professional as soon as possible.